Other meta-analyses (that is, studies that pool results from other, independent studies) have reached similar conclusions.
An Italian review 2 surveying 22 studies, including more than 650,000 people, found a 12% decreased risk of overall mortality, with a 3% added risk reduction for each additional cup of coffee consumed. Risk reduction of mortality from cardiovascular disease was found to be similar to overall mortality.
A Chinese review 3 capturing over one million individuals from 17 studies concluded that light to moderate coffee consumption may help decrease the risk of mortality from all causes, particularly for women.
Overall risk reduction correlated with consumption:
- - 13% for those who drank three to five cups of coffee (19% for women, and 10% for men)
- - 11 % for one to three cups (16% for women, 9% for men)
- - 10% for five or more (15% for women, 6% for men)
A 2014 Swedish study found similar results across a population of more than 300,000 from 21 independent studies. Results indicated the highest risk reduction at 16% among those who consumed four cups of coffee a day. Like the other review studies, no further risk reduction was found for higher levels of consumption. For mortality from cardiovascular disease, the study found a higher risk reduction level of 21%, while there appeared to be no difference in risk level for mortality from cancer.
Together, results of all of the studies suggest a similar link between coffee consumption and a lowered risk of mortality. All findings showed a “dose-responsive” relationship – that is, as coffee consumption increased, the mortality risk decreased.
1. Y. Je and E. Giovannucci ,British Journal of Nutrition, Nov 27:1-12, 2013
2. S. Malerba, F. Turati, C. Galeone et al, European Journal of Epidemiology, 28:527-539, 2013
3. Y. Zhao, K. Wu, J. Zheng et al, Public Health Nutrition, 18(7), 1282-1291, 2014
4. A. Crippa, A. Discacciati, S. Larsson et al, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 180, No. 8, 201